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nl  anker   Alg.: elk type stevige bevestiging. Bij schepen echter een voorwerp dat aan een touw of ketting bevestigd is en door het gewicht of de vorm aan de bodem kan worden vastgehaakt  waardoor het schip op het water dezelfde positie houdt.  
de  Anker allg. jede Art von stabiler Befestigung, am Schiff aber insbesondere ein Gegenstand, der an einem Seil oder einer Kette befestigt ist und durch sein Gewicht oder seine Form am Grund haftet und dadurch das Schiff auf dem Wasser in Position hält. Im allgemeinen handelt es sich um schmiedeeiserne Teile, die aus Ankerschaft, (beweglichen) Flunken und Wirbel zur Befestigung einer Kette bestehen und je nach Anforderung und Konzept unterschiedlich gestaltet sind, in jedem Fall aber so, daß sie den bestmöglichen Halt im Ankergrund bieten.
en  anchor in general every implementation by which a ship is rendered stationary, such as a bolt, a stone or a piece of iron; a ship's anchor may be called every piece of equipment fixed to a rope or chain which by its weight or shape is able to keep an unmoored vessel at its place. Usually a heavy forging or casting comprising a shank and two arms with palms and a shackle to fix an anchor chain. There are numerous designs particularly of the arms and flukes, according to different demands and/or concepts and with respect to an optimal grip in the anchoring ground.
fr  ancre  
es ancla      
it ancora      
dk anker      
se ankare      
 
a
ankerroering Ankerring anchor ring organeau d'ancre
b
ankerschacht Ankerschaft anchor shank tige d'ancre
c
ankerklauw Ankerflunkenspitze anchor bill bec d'ancre
d
ankervloei Ankerflunke anchor fluke patte d'ancre
e
ankerarm Ankerarm anchor arm bras d'ancre
f
ankerkroon Ankerkreuz anchor crown croisée d'ancre
g
ankerrolbout Ankerbolzen anchor bolt boulon d'ancre
 
en    
  The principal points of excellence in an anchor are: holding power under various conditions, strength, quick holding, quick tripping, freedom from fouling, facility of stowing, and of fishing, facility of sweeping, and facility of transport in or by boats. Slight differences in design make a considerable difference in the holding power of anchors.
The center of gravity of any type of anchor should be located as near as possible to a line perpendicular to the shank passing through the bills when the anchor is placed on the ground in order to have the maximum pressure or weight on this part. But at the same time , to prevent any toppling over when the anchor is lying on inclined or uneven ground, it is necessary that the center of gravity should be kept near the head. It is customary for this reason, when designing anchors of the admiralty pattern, to place the center of gravity at about 0.42 of the total length of the anchor. With stockless anchors, because of the great weight of the head and the absence of stock, the center of gravity is located very near the axis around which the flukes swing and, therefore, beyond the vertical line passing through the bills. The weight and pull on the chain prevent any tipping over. The dimensions of anchors are in proportion to the total volume of the ship and the scantlings of the different parts are arrived at by empirical deductions after testing.
The weight of anchors is determined by the section of the cable, the diameter of which is determined by the ship's displacement. Anchors used by sailing vessels are heavier than those by mechanically propelled vessels of the same displacement on account of windage.(International Maritime Dictionary)